SahIh Muslim. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1973-1975.

TirmizI SharIf. Urdu translation in 2 vols. Lal Kuan. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot, 1980.

SahIh Bukhari. Only partial translations in English available in India. Abridged Urdu translation, SahIh BukhAri SharIf. Churiwalan, Delhi: Kitab Khana, Ishaitu’l Islam.

MishkAtu’l-MasbIh [Niche of lamps]. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of HadIs, very popular and much in use. Reprint of English translation by Dr. James Robson. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1973. Urdu translation in 2 vols.; Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot.


The KorAn. Translation by E. H. Palmer. London, New York, and Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Glorious QurAn. English translation with the original Arabic text by Abdullah Yusuf ’Ali. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri.

QurAn Majeed. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic; English translation by M. Pickthall. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat.


SIrat RasUl Allah by Ibn IshAq. The very first definitive biography and the source of subsequent ones. English translation, The Life of Muhammad, translated and edited by A. Guillaume. Oxford, New York, and Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1980.

TabaqAt Ibn Sa’d. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the Companions. Ibn Sa’d, popularly known as KAtib al-WAqidI, composed fifteen volumes on different classes (tabaqAt) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors, and the history of the Khalifas up to his own time. Urdu translation in 8 vols., vols. 1 and 2, SIras: The Biography of the Prophet. Karachi: Nafees Academy.

TArIkh TabarI, or Annals, by TabarI. The first volume, SIrat al-NabI, is a biography of Muhammad. At-TabarI died in A.H. 310 (A.D. 922), and his SIrat al-NabI is an authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. Urdu translation in 11 vols. Karachi: Nafees Academy.

The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. Khavendshah b. Mahmud, popularly known as Mirkhond. A fifteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity, trans. E. Tehatsek. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1893. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi, Delhi-6, India.

The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. Scholarly and pioneering study. 4 vols. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1861.

Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. Scholarly. Pelican Books, 1973.


Nahj al-BalAghah. Selections from sermons, letters, and sayings of ’AlI; trans. by Syed Ali Raza. Tehran: World Organization for Islamic Services.

Shiaism by S. Ghaffari. 3d ed. Tehran: Shahpur Square, 1976.


Dictionary of Islam by Thomas Patrick Hughes. 1885; reprinted, New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, 1976.

Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics, edited by James Hastings. Edinburgh and New York: T. & T. Clark.


The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir. 1st ed., 1897; reprinted, Allahabad: R. S. Publishing House.

QurAn Parichaya by Deva Prakash. Hindi publication in 3 vols. The author was a great scholar of the Arabic language and Islamic religious literature. The volumes are badly printed and lack modern critical aids. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg, Ratlam (M.P.)-India.

The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. Among other things, discusses monotheism vis-à-vis polytheism. New Delhi: Impex India, 1980.